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How Brainwaves Work

Electrical activity from the brain is displayed in the form of brainwaves. There are five categories brainwaves, ranging from the most activity to the least activity. Delta (1-3 hz), Theta (4-7 hz), Alpha (8-12 hz), Beta (broken down into Lo-Beta (13-15 hz), Mid-Beta (16-19hz), High-Beta (20-30+hz)).

Each of these take turns throughout the day when performing tasks.

Beta Waves

When the brain is aroused and actively engaged in mental activities, it generates beta waves. Beta waves are broken down into the following: the frequency of Beta waves are broken down into Lo-Beta (13-15 hz), Mid-Beta (16-19hz), High-Beta (20-30 hz) per cycle. These type of brainwaves are of relatively low amplitude, and are the fastest of the four different brainwaves.

Beta waves are characteristics of a strong engaged mind. A person in active conversation would be in beta. A person making a speech, or a teacher, or someone who regular talks and responds to questions are in high beta when engaged in work. Beta represented active arousal.

Alpha Waves

The next category in order of frequency is alpha (8-12 hz). Alpha represents non-arousal. These brainwave patterns are slower with higher amplitude.

A person who has completed a task and sits down to rest is in an alpha state. Yoga meditation, or a person who takes time out to reflect or meditate, usually promotes alpha state. Relaxing and taking a break to take a walk away from being engaged in a task or project is often in an alpha state. 

Theta Waves

Theta brainwaves (4-7 hz), typically have greater amplitude and slower frequency per second.

Once someone decides to step away from a task mentally and begins to day dream daydream is often in a theta brainwave state. “Being in idle mode” is usually the feeling one will have such as a person who is driving on a freeway, and discovers that they can’t recall the last five miles, is often in a theta state. Research has found that driving and the blinking of trees going by can increase this idle state. The repetitious visual of trees and limited distractions on a quiet roadway  during driving would induce more theta when compared to driving on a fast freeway where one would need to be on guard. This on guard feeling would produce more of a beta or “alert” state. This beta state helps the driver perform the driving task safely.

Individuals who do a lot of freeway driving often get good ideas during those periods when they are in theta. Individuals who run outdoors often are in the state of mental relaxation that is slower than alpha and when in theta, they are prone to a flow of ideas.

When performing a regular mundane task; such as, taking a shower, bath, or brushing teeth, can promote a theta state. These type of tasks become so automatic that you can mentally disengage from them. This releases active energy where free flow is promoted and occurs without censorship or guilt. This helps to release negative emotions and it is very beneficial when used in collaboration with talk therapy.

Delta Waves

The last brainwave state is delta. These brainwaves are of the greatest amplitude and slowest frequency. Typically are from 1 to 3 hertz per second. They never go down to zero because that would mean that you were had no brain activity. Delta waves normally are responsible for sleep. 

When we go to bed and read for a few minutes before going to sleep, we are likely transition from high beta to low beta. When we feel like we are drifting to sleep and close the book to turn off the lights, we transition from alpha to theta. Once we close our eyes, our brain goes from theta and when we fall asleep it transcends to delta.

Sleep and Brainwaves

Men, women and children of all ages experience the same characteristic brainwaves. They are consistent across cultures and country boundaries.

We dream in 90 minute cycles. Active dreaming takes place after your delta brainwaves transition and increase up to theta waves. Typically, when this occurs one will be in an active dream and experience rapid eye movement (REM). This is called REM sleep.

When you begin to wake up you may stay in theta waves and feel the sleepy idle state. This is usually the best time to recount your dream and write it down if you keep a sleep journal. 

Research has shown that although one brainwave state may predominate at any given time, depending on the activity level of the individual, the remaining three brain states are present in the mix of brainwaves at all times. Meaning that while somebody is an active state exhibiting a beta brainwave pattern, there also exists in that person’s brain a component of alpha, theta and delta, even though these may be present only at the trace level. 

One way to review how active your brainwaves are is to complete a qEEG Brain Map


Mental Health Check

It is vitally important that we take time out for ourselves on a regular basis to check in with our own personal needs. While many mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety and ADHD, have strong genetic ties that may be out of our control, it is equally true that our way of thinking and our daily behaviors contribute significantly to our overall levels of health and well-being.

How the Sinha Clinic can Help

We believe that being content and happy is a state of mind that will take practice, effort, and vigilance.  This is within everyone’s reach if we put in the time and effort into self-discovery, reflection and personal growth.

The Sinha Clinic blends integrative and holistic treatment methods for optimal mental health benefits. We use psychiatric medications in conjunction with a blend of therapeutic services including counseling or neurofeedback brain training. Each person needs to be ready to begin a new change. One will need to be ready to understand the underlying subconscious reasons that they may be creating a spiral of negative behaviors and thoughts. Change can be difficult but it worthwhile. Begin a new path to transform your life and take the necessary steps to change the seemingly unchangeable life circumstances. This will help to heal the past, live in the present mindfully and reach your optimal potential while pursue healthy, loving, and mutually rewarding personal relationships.



Individuals, like you, may be concerned and unsure how to gain access to much needed mental health service. You may feel that you can handle your anxiety or depression symptoms and it will soon pass. 

You may feel, or maybe a family member discourages the importance of addressing mental health concerns. You may want to avoid a waiting room cause you feel judged or uneasy about the process. 

I want you to know that addressing mental health needs are key in taking care of yourself. Many share in these same concerns but that doesn’t stop them from realizing they need help. Even if they are afraid to seek it, our staff discusses your options discreetly and confidentially. 

I have seen a new trend in telehealth options for medical practices. It is a great alternative option for those seeking mental health services and I am proud to announce that we have implemented a new telehealth option for medication management to those who are unable to make their appointments and this will aid in overcoming many common barriers. 

By increasing access to physicians and specialists, telehealth helps ensure patients receive the right care, at the right place, at the right time(1).


Telehealth has many benefits: 

  • It has been shown to overcome barriers for those who do not have access to reliable transportation. 
  • It limits the gaps in time between appointments.
  • Reduces distance and travel time that can limit access to care.
  • You can still make an appointment if you are sick and need to discuss mental health concerns 
  • Provides a convenient option for those who are physically unable to come in for an appointment.
  • It opens the option for those in more rural areas who do not have access to quality mental health providers.
  • And it provides options to more community providers for more comprehensive care. 

Telehealth will not replace traditional mental health appointments but will provide flexibility and convenience as an option for those in need of this service. 

We prescreen those interested in telehealth ahead of their scheduled appointment. 

Are you interested in setting up telehealth services at the Sinha Clinic – Contact the office today at (630) 762-9606 to discuss if telehealth is the right option for you or a loved one. 


ADHD: Treatment Options

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a brain disorder marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development.(1) ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed disorder with these behaviors interfere with school and home life and can continue into adulthood.

Adults with ADHD may have trouble managing time, being organized, setting goals, and holding down a job. They may also have problems with relationships, self-esteem, and addiction.(2)

  • Inattention – Unable or difficulty to maintain or sustain focus, disorganized. These symptoms are not due to defiant behavior or lack of comprehension.
  • Hyperactivity – Moving constantly, excessively fidgeting, taps hands or feet, or talks quickly and abundantly. This is including situations that may not be appropriate. In adults, it may appear as extreme restlessness or constant activity.
  • Impulsivity – Making quick decisions without thinking before reacting. Hasty actions that can have high potential for harm without consideration for long-term consequences. Unable to delay gratification and need immediate rewards.

Treatment Options: 

  • Medication
  • Psychotherapy
  • Neurofeedback
  • Combination

Treatment options:

ADHD is genetic-based disorder with environmental, social and behavioral components that can exacerbate symptoms. There is no cure and the cause is not officially known. However, there are options that help reduce symptoms and improve daily functioning.

We have added just a few areas that many families have used to help:

ADHD medications reduce hyperactivity and impulsivity and improve their ability to focus, work, and learn. Medication also may improve physical coordination. Sometimes several different medications or dosages must be tried before finding the right one that works for a particular person. Anyone taking medications must be monitored closely and carefully by their prescribing doctor. The most common medication prescribed is a stimulant. It works by increasing brain chemicals (dopamine and norepinephrine), which play essential roles in thinking and attention. These medications should be monitored by a licensed doctor as there are a number of side effects that can occur with the use of stimulant medications.

  • decreased appetite
  • sleep problems
  • tics (sudden, repetitive movements or sounds)
  • personality changes
  • increased anxiety and irritability
  • stomachaches
  • headaches

If any of these occur, you should notify your doctor to determine the best course of action.


Cognitive Behavioral therapy is a type of psychotherapy that aims to help a person change his or her behavior. It can help to teach the patient to better organize tasks or complete schoolwork. Some deeper levels of psychotherapy can help the patient process through emotionally difficult events. It can also help the patient become more aware of his/her symptoms by monitoring behavior patterns, giving praise or positive reinforcement for appropriate responses; such as, thinking before reacting.



Neurofeedback is based-based biofeedback. It is non-invasive, uses no medication, but can be used in combination with medication or other treatment programs. It is a learning modality to teach the brain to self-regulate by improving brainwave patterns to produce electrical connectivity in a more optimal way. This reduces symptoms of many conditions and disorders. 

Neurofeedback is used in a video, music or video game that produces video or sound when the brain meets specific criteria designed from a qEEG Brain Map. This is considered the positive feedback for desired brain activity.


For brain activity that is undesirable, the movie or auditory tones will fade so the brain receives no stimulus to continue producing the undesirable brainwave patterns. The goal is for symptoms to diminish long-term when using the correct protocols for a variety of disorders.

  • Benefits of Neurofeedback
    • Neurofeedback training has been commonly found to be associated with decreased impulsiveness and hyperactivity, increased mood stability, improved sleep patterns, increased attention span, improved academic performance, increased retention and memory, and increased IQ scores.

Combination of treatments:
Treatment includes medication, psychotherapy, neurofeedback, education or training, or a combination of these treatments to help find a balance that works for the child or adult to improve functioning.


Migraines! Make them Stop!

Many people come to the Sinha Clinic searching for relief from chronic migraine and headache pain, they want an option that is an alternative to medication, that will last long term and won’t trade pain relief with another type of nasty side effect.

There is an alternative option to medication… This is a modality called Neurofeedback. 


Neurofeedback is very helpful and effective tool for migraines and headaches. Migraines are a common, disabling and often progressive disorder characterized by increased excitability of the central nervous system. It occurs in 18% of women and 6% of men in the US with peak prevalence in individuals between the ages of 25 and 55.

Migraines occur in 18% of women and 6% of men in the US with peak prevalence in individuals between the ages of 25 and 55.

Neurofeedback helps to alleviate the debilitating pain and is very effective in reducing the frequency and intensity of migraines long term.  Neurofeedback works to create more efficient brainwave patterns, which is completed by watching a movie, listening to music, or playing a video game. This type of training will help to strengthen the neural pathways to reduce negative symptoms associated with migraines, and a vast number of other cognitive disorders. 

Neurofeedback has been featured in the news from a study conducted by Dr. Stokes.

The NBC news story focused on Anedi Edelstein, who had tried 10 different prescription drugs and was concerned about the side effects of drowsiness, which could affect driving with her young children. This story discusses how her migraines were impacted by neurofeedback training and reports that she is now migraine free.

Dr. Stokes and Lappin’s (2010) study reported, “All combined neuro and biofeedback interventions were effective in reducing the frequency of migraines with clients using medication resulting in a more favorable outcome (70% experiencing at least a 50% reduction in headaches) than just medications alone (50% experience a 50% reduction) and that the effect size of our study involving three different types of biofeedback for migraine (1.09) was more robust than effect size of combined studies on thermal biofeedback alone for migraine (.5). These non-invasive interventions may show promise for treating treatment-refractory migraine and for preventing the progression from episodic to chronic migraine.”

Another success story is about Linda - Watch video below to learn more.

The Sinha Clinic offers medication management, neuro feedback and neuro psychiatric care in a stable and caring environment. If you or a loved one needs help and want to improve your cognitive health, please call us at (630) 762-9606 to discuss your options and request to speak to our clinician about the benefits of neuro feedback.